What is the Science Behind DNA Art?

As a molecular biologist, I found the subject of DNA Art to be interesting. It has been referred to as fine, art, modern art, abstract art, and contemporary art. Essentially, it is a digitally optimized image of the electrophoresis process in which DNA fragments are separated.Lets first look at the Science behind DNA Art99.9% of all human DNA is identical, so that part of our genetic code is overlooked. If this was taken into consideration, the DNA Art would be identical from person-to-person. Therefore, it is the remaining 0.01% of the DNA where variation occurs that is taken into account when creating this artwork. This part of the genome contains what is currently considered non-coding or “junk” DNA. The typical laboratory process in for this kind of DNA testing is as follows:

After the laboratory receives the sample, it is first amplified by a technique called Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Since this creates millions of copies of the chromosomal regions of interest, the lab will then have an optimal sample size to proceed in the testing process.
Next, the DNA fragments undergo gel electrophoresis, in which they are then pulled through an agarose gel with an electric field. This charge is created by placing a positive electrode to the opposite end of the gel. DNA characteristically has a negative charge from the phosphate ions in the sugar-phosphate “backbone”. Thus, the factors impeding the sample in the agarose gel would be size, shape, and charge. The image seen in artwork is actually digitally optimized image of the fragments in the gel.
Lastly, the DNA undergoes evaluation utilizing short tandem repeat (STR) technology. An allelic ladder can now be used to differentiate between the chromosomal locations on the DNA fragments. This ladder is used to evaluate the regions of variability on the DNA fragments.
What can be determined about someone from the image of this DNA Art?The part of the DNA utilized in most DNA Artwork is the non-coding regions, also known as “junk” DNA. This is part of the DNA does not contain any medical information and cannot be used in any way to make any health predictions. However, it is somewhat of a medical mystery since we do not know what it is used to code for. But, hopefully sometime in the near future geneticists will have yet another breakthrough and put this mystery to rest.To learn more about DNA Art, please visit: DNA Art Online

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The Ideal Dry Cat Food for Your Feline Friend

Cats like any other animals are prone to dietary related ailments such as diabetes, urinary crystal and chronic renal failure all of which can be avoided through proper diet administration. Cats are carnivores and require a large percentage of their diet to be composed of meat protein. Dry cat food is often preferred over meat, because it is readily available and it is low in cost. However, dry food can cause problems especially when the cat’s digestive system lacks enough amino Taurine which is needed for digestion, and it is largely obtained from meat based products.It is wise to look out for the dry cat food products which comprise of healthy nutrients, as opposed to those comprising of fillers which add no nutritional value to your pet’s diet. Dry pet food rich in animal protein, minerals, vitamins and salts are ideal choices because these nutrients are vital for your cat’s development. Some of the nutritious constituents of healthy dry cat food include:SalmonSalmon is a good source of proteins for both humans and pets because it is aids in the process of tissue development and repair. Pet food products which contain salmon also provide saturated salts, which are vital for hormone production and organ padding. Most dry food products which contain salmon often come packed with fish meal, poultry fat, beet pulp, maize, wheat, minerals and chicken liver digest.Duck and chicken concentratesDry cat food composed of a high percentages of duck and chicken concentrates, are ideal for mature cats. Products with these ingredients are often accompanied by chicken liver digest, fish meal, poultry fat, duck meal, salt, wheat and yeast.Dry food products formulated for mature cats should also contain large percentage of turkey proteins and cranberry. Also look out for monocalcium phosphate, rice, wheat and maize in these turkey-based products. This presents a complete meal to your pet, designed to meet a cat’s dietary requirements.Dry food for kittensIn the case of younger cats, it is best to go for dry food specially made for kittens. Look out for dry meal products which are essentially composed of ingredients rich in protein and calcium, which are needed for proper bone development. The products should also contain vitamins which are required for healthy growth.Fresh clean water should always accompany dry foods to avoid dehydration; statistics have shown that protein meat contains as much as 70% water content while dry foods contain 10% water content or less. To compensate for this difference, always ensure that your cat gets adequate drinking water.

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Sexual Health Problems Among Middle-Aged Women

Do you know women?Before you venture an answer which could put you in hot waters, get a lesson from Frank Sinatra about women. He said:”I’m supposed to have a Ph/D on the subject of women. But the truth is I’ve flunked more often than not. I’m very fond of women; I admire them. But, like all men, I don’t understand them.”Women are difficult creatures to understand. They can be nothing and everything at the same time; compassionate and fierce, tough and tender, beautiful and ugly. I guess God made them that way to make life interesting; to keep men second guessing them.Not that they are really that impossible to know or understand. It’s just that men look at the world from their own eyes. Seldom, if ever, is the woman’s side given much weight in the affair of a man’s life – except in his extra marital affairs.A good example is the Viagra. When it hit the market, it created a frenzy among men. It was like the Holy Grail for those who have been wallowing in self-doubt or frenzy from the most common sexual problem among men – erectile dysfunction.But was there a when a similar drug for women was introduced into the market? Not that women are free from sexual health issues. In fact, due to the different anatomy, women have more of them than men. The world, men’s world, just didn’t care.Anyway, for those who are so indifferent or ignorant about their wives or partners, here are the most common sexual health problems they face. Being equipped with such knowledge, I hope that you will be more circumspect when your blue pill didn’t seem to have a reciprocal effect from them.Inhibited sexual desire:
This is plain lack of sexual desire or interest in sex which could be attributed to hormonal changes, especially during their menopausal period, medical conditions like cancer, depression, pregnancy, stress, fatigue, boredom with regular sexual routines and lifestyle factors like career and the care of children.Arousal problems:
This is manifested by the lack or insufficiency of vaginal lubrication during sexual activity, thought to be due to anxiety or inadequate stimulation or blood flow problems to the vagina and clitoris.Orgasm problems (anorgasmia):
This is plain lack of sexual climax usually caused by sexual inhibition, inexperience, lack of sexual knowledge and psychological factors like guilt, anxiety or trauma over past sexual experience or abuse. Other factors could be medication side-effects and chronic diseases.Painful intercourse:
This could be due to endometriosis (a gynecological disorder among 5 – 10% of women in their reproductive years), ovarian cyst, vaginitis (any infection or inflammation of the vagina), poor lubrication, scar tissues from surgery, or sexually transmitted diseases. Vaginismus, is a painful condition that happens due to the involuntary spasm of the muscles surrounding the vaginal entrance. This happens among women who have a psychological fear of the pain of penetration, sex phobia and traumatic experience from painful sex.It is impossible to tell how many soured relationships and broken marriages have resulted from these sexual problems, especially among those in the middle-age range.Lawyers call it “irreconcilable psychological differences.” You may call it any way you like. It doesn’t change the fact that these are very real and if your wife or partner is affected by any or some of these, you are in real big trouble.If she means that much to you, consult your doctor first before running to your lawyer. I am sure it is less expensive in the long run – money wise or otherwise.I am sure, too, that he will prescribe something for her as well, to make your relationship, not just your orgasm, more lasting, meaningful and satisfying.

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The Basics Of Long Term Health Care

With various incidences of cancer, HIV and other long terms illnesses on the rise, it is imperative that every individuals has adequate protection in place to deal with any long term care needs that they may have in the future, whether that need is to be fulfilled in the near future or in the distant future. Medical or health insurance can provide you with peace of mind just in case you ever do need long term health care. Most forms of medical insurance will cover you should the need arise to give yourself to health care providers to get well as soon as possible, but not all will have the same cover. You need good cover in order to take care of yourself when you are no longer physically able. Good insurance can make sure that professionals can look after you when your long term health care needs dictate.These days, adverts for insurance are everywhere. There are numerous adverts on TV, radio and in magazines. There are even various ones on the Internet that you can look into further, but very few of these adverts on any medium will advertise the long term health care benefits. You have to delve a little deeper to get a good picture of them. The sheer choice will also baffle you because you will be inundated with information about products that you can neither distinguish nor effectively examine. You should note the reputable companies and make a short list, and then delve into the world of long term health care. You should actually contact the companies and ask specifically about long term health care for in depth information.You should ideally compose a list of all of your wants and needs where long term health care is concerned before delving into conversation with any representative of insurance companies because the cover can be very basic but any good sales person can make it sound incredibly good. By having a list of wants and needs concerning your long term health care, you can compare what they have to say with that. You should always do some online research to see what elements of long term health care should, by rights, be receiving regardless of the insurance policy you take out and also what cover you should be looking for.Do not be afraid to play companies off against one another by comparing their policy to others that offer long term health care options. You should try to get as much out of a company as you possibly can because it is your health, which is very precious after all. As long as you do your research, you can make sure that you get a great deal for your money… and your long term health care!

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Working Capital Management and Commercial Finance Consulting

Without adequate information about what should be done to obtain small business loans in the current extreme circumstances, most business borrowers are increasingly confused. Business finance consulting that provides practical advice about overcoming current lending difficulties will be helpful to business owners. Nevertheless, because of a chaotic commercial financing climate, effective working capital management advice has become a valuable and rare commodity. Even though they are clearly in demand, business financing experts are simply not easy to locate.Some very helpful and effective business finance advice is available at no cost, and business owners should usually start any search for help by reviewing such free advice first. Two notable examples of sources available for free online are The Working Capital Journal and The Commercial Mortgages Guide. However, the normal complexity of small business loans combined with a chaotic commercial lending climate is likely to increase the necessity of individualized commercial finance consulting assistance from a commercial financing expert.Such personalized business finance consulting help will not be as easy to find as might be expected. In many cases, commercial financing advisors are not willing to charge a fixed commercial finance consulting fee that requires them to spend more time and frequently offers them much less compensation than provided by lucrative loan fees that are often well over $5000. If small business owners can find a commercial loan expert willing to provide these professional consulting services for a reasonable fixed fee, a likely cost range will be $1500 to $3000 for a basic but thorough consulting effort.One of the most important efforts that commercial borrowers should undertake with a qualified business finance consultant is to explore contingency financing options which might be necessary due to the current upheaval in financial markets. For many years I have advocated the importance of “always having a Plan B” for working capital financing and other business financing.Now that many banks have routinely reduced or eliminated business lines of credit or recalled commercial loans, the true value of formulating contingency plans for small business loans and commercial real estate financing has become very apparent. When they are unprepared to do so, business owners will find it much more difficult to find alternative sources for financing. With a practical contingency financing plan, business owners will not be caught by surprise and will be ready to take quick action if their current commercial lender suddenly changes course and revokes existing commercial finance agreements.Most small business owners have their own areas of special interest in addition to a “Plan B” scenario to investigate with the help of a candid business finance consulting effort. Regardless of the specific topic, it will usually be beneficial for a business borrower to have a straightforward discussion with a small business loan expert.In some cases, these discussions can be thought of as “getting a second opinion” for new commercial financing or refinancing of existing debt. Business owners might not have previously seen the point in paying even a modest consulting fee to get such a second opinion, but recent events have changed that perspective in most cases. Now that many banks have made it so painfully clear that they can make really big mistakes when the right questions are not asked beforehand, more and more commercial borrowers readily understand that they might need someone else looking out for their best interests.For tasks like those described above, how should small business owners find a business finance consultant to help? One suggestion is to include the power of the internet and conduct a search for “working capital finance expert” or “commercial financing and consulting”. Hopefully you will have a Plan B to help guide you if that approach is not sufficiently effective.

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